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NCSU Extension Publication:AG-763W
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Carolina Athletic Fields

Sports fields play a pivotal role in recreational and competitive outdoor athletic activities.
A quality playing surface is appreciated by all participants, whether playing casual pick-up games or professional team sports,
and produces a pleasing appearance to spectators.
In addition, sports complexes are facing increasing legal questions and liability regarding injuries associated with
a poorly designed, constructed, or maintained facility.
To have a quality turfgrass playing surface in all seasons of use, sports fields must have the following:
(1) Adequate surface and subsurface water drainage.
(2) A properly designed, installed, and maintained irrigation system.
(3) A vigorous, regular turfgrass maintenance program with an appropriate turfgrass.
(4) Reasonable play and field use.
(5) Basic equipment.
An unacceptable turfgrass stand often results when
one or more of these elements are omitted or when uncontrolled or excessive play and traffic are allowed.
Bermudagrass exhibits optimum growth during summer months; however, with the onset of play and traffic in fall,
along with soil compaction, the turf may become excessively worn.
For this reason, some fields will be overseeded with a ryegrass to provide a wearable surface during the winter and early spring seasons.